Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Creon As Tragic Hero of Sophocles’ Antigone Essay -- essays papers

Creon As Tragic Hero of Sophocles’ Antigone Since the play’s inception, there has always existed a contention concerning the true hero of Sophocles’ Antigone. It is a widely held belief that Antigone must be the main character simply because she and the drama share name. This is, of course, a very logical assumption. Certainly Sophocles must have at least meant her to be viewed as the protagonist, else he would not have given her the play’s title. Analytically speaking, however, Creon does seem to more categorically fit the appellation of â€Å"Tragic Hero.† There is no doubt as to the nature of the work, that being tragedy. Along with this genre comes certain established prerequisites, and Creon is the only character that satisfactorily fits them all. There are certain qualities that a character must posses in order to qualify as a tragic hero. Ideally, the subject is to be a person of high rank, so that they may have much to lose. (Most frequently a monarch is used.) Granted, Antigone is a member of the royal bloodline. But we must not forget that she is the daughter of incest, hardly a glamorous position to start with. In Oedipus Rex, Antigone was indirectly disgraced, while Creon was socially elevated by inheriting kingship from Oedipus. Also, Creon’s being king comparatively trumps Antigone’s lesser status of orphaned princess. While this in itself objectively proves nothing, it does at a minimum make Creon the more likely choice of protagonist. Another essential component of a tragic hero is that of the tragic flaw, the one attribute that causes the inevitable downfall of the character. A case could be made for Antigone’s hamartia being obduracy. She is called stubbornly wild in the play by both Creon— â€Å"Th... ...d no wrong. Antigone needs no redemption because she has committed no great misdeed. Creon, however, comes to see his grave mistakes after he has fallen from grace. Creon repents, and is even brought to the verge of suicide. Like all tragic heroes, he can only realize his vice once everything has been taken away from him. So who was meant to be the lead character of Antigone? Antigone. So who is the lead character of Antigone? Creon. Somewhere along the line, Sophocles found a more complex story in the insecure king than in the defiant noblewoman. Using Aristotle’s outline of Greek tragedy (which ironically was primarily based on Sophocles), Creon is the only character who meets the criteria. Creon started from the highest position, suffered the greatest net losses, and possessed the only inarguable flaw. Titles aside, the literary content speaks for itself.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

An Interview with the Elderly

Gillian Howard was only 7 when the Second World War started; it was a chain of events that didn't just wreck her childhood but many others. The observer got the chance to interview her as part of our elderly season. I came into the warm living room for this interview and my surrounding are of ornaments and glass statues. This is because my grandmother, Gillian, is an antique collector, so to start this interview I nuzzle myself into the infamous black leather sofa ready for the interview. My grandmother entered, I immediately stand up for this is how you treat the elder generation, with respect. I greet her and I sit back down ready to question her. I firstly ask her to just say a few interesting points that are important. She says she was born 1932 so was only 7 when the war started; Gillian lived in London at the time. Gillian still lives in London today and that is where we are now. When the blitz started in 1941 Gillian was evacuated from London and went on a train to Bristol. After that brief summary I proceed to ask her of when she felt most sad. Naturally it was when she   was separated from her parents and evacuated. She was crying and a group of soldiers came up to her and comforted her they were at the station too and were on the train to Bristol to go to the port to go onto a battleship. They sang to her the wartime songs all the way from London to Bristol she learnt them all. â€Å"But there is another event that really was sad and it just shows how the war tears families to shreds,† she said. I ask what this event is; she says â€Å"It was of course when my brother died in world war two, you see he was torpedoed by a German U-boat 4 people survived. He was one of them and he was on a chunk of metal torn away form the ship. After 4 days without food in the scorching heat of Africa the U-Boat surfaced and left them there they took photographs and used them as propaganda saying they were actually good people for they had rescued 4 dying men. 3 days later my brother died and 1 day later the rest of the crew were rescued he was just one day to short.† It is a story I have heard many times before, but it still makes me feel awfully sorry for my grandmother and her family. I then ask what happened when she arrived at Bristol. She says the she and her other brother were to be taken to a boarding school. But wasn't as easy as it seemed for it was an only boys boarding school. Gillian got up to much mischief â€Å"in one event there was a sudden uproar of mice in the school, every single pupil had one and we hid them underneath the fold up old fashioned desks.† In another event Gillian describes the useless French teacher. She explains in this episode of how pathetic the teacher was and how all the children decided to trick her. She recalls the event, â€Å"You see the week before we had tricked another teacher by putting thin string all around the corridor and it tripped her up. All the teachers were on red alert so before class I went outside the classroom of the French teacher she was marking homework in the room and I pretended to tie up all these pieces of string outside. So we went into the lesson that is our class and pretended to jump over the strings. So when the teacher left the classroom she was crawling over the floor, she thought there was string. If we had cameras back then that would be the time to use it!† I ask her if she ever saw the bombing. She then says that they only stayed at Bristol for one day before they were whisked away to the countryside. But in that night she saw the bombing. She says â€Å"In the night I was with my brother it was the most terrifying thing and all you could hear was the screeching of the bombs and huge explosions.† I ask, â€Å"When the war was over was there a huge sense of relief.† â€Å"When the war ended everybody was so cheerful I was in London on victory day but before this whole experience I was 7 now I was 13 a whole chunk of my childhood was torn out,† says Gillian. So were many other children's childhood I think to myself. â€Å"So after that I grew up in London and I met your grandfather Theo, at the age of 22, Theo was 29. So many people got married young in those days,† says Gillian. Gillian and Theo now live in a large Victorian, house in Chelsea London. I ask if they both go out much. â€Å"I go out with our dog Bosie on a walk every day to keep him healthy,† she explains. Bosie is the puppy born in august. He is very lively and is active so they go on a walk every day. â€Å"Do you have any hobbies?† I ask. She says that she collects antiques and has a very large collection of jewellery. Whenever we visit her she always shows my sisters her latest addition to the collection. At 76 Gillian still doesn't have the same athletic ability she used to have but is still very fit for her age. When we go to the park she will be joining in with the football. I therefore sum up this interview part of are elderly season with the same message as other articles of the elderly season week. They are elderly people must have respect they have come from a completely different world compared to us and therefore needed to be treated like that. The elderly are not boring, slow, dull people as depicted in stereotypical pictures they are full of years of wisdom and can tell you lots of good stories. Don't fall for what those stereotypical pictures say†¦ THINK!

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Things They Carried By Tim O Brien - 865 Words

â€Å"Abandon hope all ye who enter here.† Dante Alighieri. Hope is an anodyne. In times of war many soldiers require a buffer to alleviate the pain of witnessing the horrors of the war zone reality. This may manifest as emotional baggage, a reoccurring theme in â€Å"The Things They Carried† by Tim O’Brien. Emotional baggage transcends the physical weight it manifests that was in the soldier’s packs. Emotional baggage can manifest as something intangible, like an obsession, or take on physical weight and mass, like something that gives comfort simply by having it on one’s person. However, there comes a time when the emotional baggage must be shrugged off if one is to move forward and onward in one’s life. O’Brien uses the reoccurring theme emotional baggage in his novel â€Å"The Things They Carried† to show not only how some soldiers utilized it in an attempt to buffer themselves from the front line, but how some put faith in the symbolism of they carried, and how some come to the realization that they must shrug off some of this distracting emotional baggage if they were to carry on. Daydreams are a defense mechanism of the psyche to escape a high stress reality. In â€Å"The Things They Carried† Tim O’Brien uses daydreams as a manifestation of emotional baggage in First Lieutenant Jimmy Cross, whom has become obsessed with Martha, a girl with whom he corresponds. â€Å"On occasion he would yell at his men to spread out the column, to keep their eyes open, but then he would slip away intoShow MoreRelatedThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien892 Words   |  4 PagesThe Vietnam War was a long, exhausting, and traumatic experience for all of the soldiers and those who came with them. The Things They Carried, by Tim O Brien illustrates the different affects the war had on a variety of people: Jacqueline Navarra Rhoads, a former nurse during the Vietnam war, demonstrates these effects within her own memoir in the book, The Forgotten Veterans. Both sources exemplify many tribulations, while sharing a common thread of suffering from mental unpredictabi lity. DesensitizationRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1377 Words   |  6 Pageslove to have it as good as we do. Tim O’Brien’s The Things They Carried discusses many veterans who experience the burden of shame and guilt daily due to their heroic actions taken during the Vietnam War. The book shows you how such a war can change a man before, during, and after it’s over.     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As I reflect on the many conflicts America has been a part of, none can compare to the tragedies that occurred in The Vietnam war. As told in The Things They Carried (O’Brien), characters such as NormanRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1457 Words   |  6 Pagesthe theme pertains to everyone regardless of their background. It conveys the same ideas to people from all across our society. Lastly, a classic is timeless, which means it has transcended the time in which it was written. In Tim O’Brien’s novel, The Things They Carried, he offers a new, intriguing way to view war or just life in general and also meets all of the crucial requirements mentioned above to qualify it as a book of literary canon. Though this book is technically a war novel, many peopleRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1242 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Tim O’Brien is obsessed with telling a true war story. O Brien s fiction about the Vietnam experience suggest, lies not in realistic depictions or definitive accounts. As O’Brien argues, absolute occurrence is irrelevant because a true war story does not depend upon that kind of truth. Mary Ann’s induction into genuine experience is clearly destructive as well as empowering† (p.12) Tim O’s text, The Things they Carried, details his uses of word choice to portray his tone and bias. Tim O’BrienRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1169 Words   |  5 Pagesbut are set in the past and borrows things from that time period. A story that fits this genre of literature is The Things They Carried. The story is about Tim O Brien, a Vietnam veteran from the Unite States, who tells stories about what had happ ened when he and his team were stationed in Vietnam. He also talks about what he felt about the war when he was drafted and what he tried to do to avoid going to fight in Vietnam. The Things They Carried by Tim O Brien was precise with its portrayal of settingRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1004 Words   |  5 Pages Tim O’Brien is a veteran from of the Vietnam War, and after coming home from his duty he decided to be a writer. His work â€Å"The Things They Carried† is about a group of soldiers that are fighting in the Vietnam War. The first part of the story talks mostly about physical items that each soldier carries, and also mentions the weight of the items as well. Though, there is one exception to the list of physical things. Lieutenant Cross is a character of the story, and Tim O’ Brien quickly states theRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien896 Words   |  4 PagesTrouble without a doubt is what First Lieutenant Jimmy Cross c arried around his shoulders because he was out in war, where mistakes happen. Lost and unknown of his surroundings he had to lead his men into safety, while destroying anything they found. First Lieutenant Jimmy Cross only holds onto one thing for hope and that is Martha, the woman who he hopes is a virgin to come back to. Tim O’ Brien introduces symbolism by adding a character that has a meaning of purity and a pebble, which symbolizesRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien Essay832 Words   |  4 PagesSummary: â€Å"By and large they carried these things inside, maintaining the masks of composure† (21). In Tim O’brien’s The Things They Carried, the American soldiers of the Vietnam War carry much more than the weight of their equipment, much more than souvenirs or good-luck charms or letters from home. They carried within themselves the intransitive burdens—of fear, of cowardice, of love, of loneliness, of anger, of confusion. Most of all, they carry the truth of what happened to them in the war—aRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1369 Words   |  6 PagesMany authors use storytelling as a vehicle to convey the immortality of past selves and those who have passed to not only in their piece of literature but in their life as an author. In Tim O’Brien’s work of fiction The Things They Carried, through his final chapter â€Å"The Lives of the Dead,† O Brien conveys that writing is a matter of survival since, the powers of s torytelling can ensure the immortality of all those who were significant in his life. Through their immortality, O’Brien has the abilityRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1407 Words   |  6 Pages       Our introduction stated that in â€Å"The Things They Carried,† author Tim O’Brien tells us not directly of the soldiers of Vietnam, or the situations they find themselves in, but about the things they carry on their shoulders and in their pockets. These â€Å"things† identify the characters and bring them to life.   I find that to be true as the author unfolds the stories about war and the uncommon things one carries in to war both inadvertently and on purpose.  Ã‚  Ã‚  As it was noted: Stories about war –

Sunday, December 29, 2019

Nietzsche and Modernism Essay - 1475 Words

Although Nietzsche isnt responsible for creating modernism, his philosophies were representative of the concerns and uncertainly of the modernist artists. Nietzsche and the modernists shared a dark outlook on society, one that he had called in his works sick and weak due to the constraints put upon them by the Christian church, and traditional values that had gone unquestioned for too long. To truly realize oneself, you must break free, denounce this imposed morality and search deep inside to develop into your own person. Nietzsche realized that in the time of the modernist movement, certain people in Europe had begun to break free of these societal restraints, and experienced nihilism, yet he acknowledged that the common man†¦show more content†¦In process he achieved a following, because its in the nature of the weak to follow one who exhumes power and confidence. The church moved to capitalize on this power, but creating its own power structure, complete with a documented list of rules. These people, so awed by their savior saw it necessary to continue to praise him after his death, and turned to the house of god to do so. When you have a group of people subservient, it is natural that those in positions of power above them will use this to their advantage. What started as a group of people following one Overman has now become the largest and most powerful institution in the world. Most people, content with their safety net of the church never think to look back and question why the c hurch is what it is, and why they should follow it. They never ask who wrote the bible and why was it written. They never question the validity of a book that relays stories past on generation to generation by word of mouth (and no doubt embellished) before they were ever put onto paper. Its Nietzsches conviction that Jesus intent was never what the church has become, but instead to realize his own true self. The Overman was Nietzsches term for he who was able to see past the haze of this imperfect existence. To reach this status, Nietzsche outlined three important steps to Nihilism. First he had to accept that religion was fabricated. His famous phrase God is dead was a harsh way of alerting people thatShow MoreRelatedModernism Vs. Modernist Modernism1335 Words   |  6 Pagesconvinced that I had somehow walked into another philosophy class rather than English. However, as it turns out, I was in the right place. It also turns out that I did know very much about modernism or literary modernism. I soon discovered that modernist literature is greatly rooted in the philosophical movement of modernism that took place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This was a movement that centered on the heightened awareness of the self. The atrocities and shock factors ofRead MoreModernism Vs. Modernist Modernism1185 Words   |  5 Pagesconvinced that I had somehow walked into another philosophy class rather than English. However, as it turns out, I was in the right place. It also turns out that I did know very much about modernism or literary modernism. I soon discovered that modernist literature is greatly rooted in the philosophical movement of modernism that took place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This was a movement that centered on the heightened awareness of the self. The atrocities and shock factors ofRead MorePost Modernism vs. Modernism870 Words   |  4 PagesModernism vs. Post Modernism The ideas of modernism and post modernism are fundamentally different. Modernism is the belief that human beings can improve their environment, using scientific knowledge, technology and putting all of those things into practice. Modernism is prevalent in the field of arts. The concept of post modernism looks at the ideas behind modernism and questions whether they really exist. (wikipedia) Modernism began in the early 1800s. It emerged with Manet and BaudelaireRead MoreArt As A Declaration Of Societal Culture844 Words   |  4 PagesContemporary art. Modernism is a term to characterize an assortment of particular imaginative and philosophical developments. Modernist separated themselves from typical types of expressions and writing. Modern artists felt as though every story that was told was a rehash of itself and does not direct far from Romantic writing. To keep away from this, modernists made better approaches to express emotions and thoughts in their work. Modernist was a term in which the Modernism age was alluded to.Read MorePostmodernism : Modernism And Postmodernism1549 Words   |  7 PagesModernism and Postmodernism To begin with, to determine the meaning of postmodernism is possible only through the relationship with modernism. Modernism in modern science is understood as a kind of cultural consciousness, which is implemented in the artistic practice of symbolism, expressionism and acmeism. In the socio-historical context, it means the period of modernism in the development of culture from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth century, that is, from Impressionism to a new novel andRead MoreScience, Religion, Politics And The Arts Of Modern Europe1386 Words   |  6 Pagesnot necessarily to be scrutinized, just believed. With the philosophical writings of Friedrich Nietzsche, modern thinking was pushed even more away from the ties of religion and closer to new political philosophies. Nietzsche’s proclamation of â€Å"God is dead† and the â€Å"Superman† provoked man to resist the conventional ideologies of religion and especially the upper class who seemingly had control. Nietzsche described the Superman as â€Å"an unconstrained being who refused to be confined within the traditionalRead MorePostmodernism : What Is Post Modernism?1389 Words   |  6 PagesWhat is Post-Modernism? Post modernism is a difficult view point to interpret or describe in a few words, as to provide an insightful description that remains succinct is quite ironic as postmodernism opposes the attempt to ascribe one broad meaning to any â€Å"thing†. Postmodernism has often been referred to as the destruction of the Metanarrative. Thought-out all cultural eras society has usually had a focal point in their cultures. The age of enlightenment used God, modernists used technology, postmodernismRead MoreRomanticism : Romanticism And Romanticism1141 Words   |  5 PagesThroughout history, there have been many literary movements. Although Romanticism and Modernism differ in their styles, values, and ideology, they were both important periods in literature. Romanticism was a literary movement during the late 18th century until the early 19th century that had an emphasis on the imagination and emotions. The movement moved through every country in Europe, Latin America, and the United States from approximately 1750 to 1870. However, France did not see the movementRead MoreZarathustras Three Metamorphoses, Applied to Modernism Essay2213 Words   |  9 Pagespeople’s daily lives, or by thinking about ways to overcome nihilism and go on without Him. This new era of modernism served as the backdrop to much of Nietzsche’s work, and had an undeniable impact on later writings such as Thus Spoke Zarathustra. The parable â€Å"The Three Metamorphoses† in that work is an outline of Nietzsche’s ideas about redemption in his contemporary period of Godless modernism. Though the title references three metamorphoses of the soul, one has already occurred when the fable beginsRead MoreShakespeares King Lear vs. Tuesdays with Morrie1495 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Existentialism was in part a reaction to modernism, but its roots can be traced to ancient philosophical traditions ranging from Zoroastrianism and Judaism, Buddhism and Platonism (Flynn). The essence of existentialism is authenticity of experience, asking the philosopher to undergo deep introspection. However, existentialism is perhaps most famous for its probing questions about what Friedrich Nietzsche called the tension of the soul, (2). Known colloquially as existential angst, the tension

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Sociological Perspective On Understanding Human Society

Evaluate the Sociological Approach to understanding Human Society Explanation of common sense and sociological approaches to the study of Human Societies, with examples. Common sense is subjective as it’s based on opinion and belief; these personal interpretations generate norms in a society that a culture becomes accustomed to, so much so that they barely notice them. It is the basic level of knowledge and judgement that we all share; which we take for granted as a real and true. Common sense tries to explain a situation solely in terms of the individual or persons involved in it; there is no attempt to understand the situation in terms of wider social forces. Common sense in the UK would be for example waiting in a line at the super market, crossing the road at the lights in no particular order however in Germany common sense in waiting in a queue is first come first served it s not unnatural to duke someone at a takeaway restaurant. Also a common sense in Japan is crossing the road in a question line something that would seem quite absurd in the UK. The sociological view is objective because facts are found using scientific research on huma n society. It is an objective look at and people with in depth analyses supplying quantitative data and qualitative data. Common sense is an explanation of what should be where as sociological view looks at what actually is. In 1959 sociologist C. Wright Mills published the sociological imagination a book which allows us to graspShow MoreRelatedTheoretical Frameworks Of Sociology And Sociological Perspective Essay918 Words   |  4 Pagescultures and societies; and of the interrelationships of individuals, group, organizations, cultures and societies.† (Kennedy, 2011, p. 1). What makes someone a sociologist? It isn’t what they study that makes them a sociologist, but how they think about it and how they study it. In this essay, I will be discussing theoretical frameworks of sociology; what is sociological perspective, how sociology differs from other disciplines such as history, anthropology or psychology, and how are sociological paradigmsRead MoreSociological Perspec tive Essay978 Words   |  4 Pagesessay and define the sociological perspective. To be able to explain how my knowledge of the Sociological Perspective has helped me to understand the social world on both a macro and micro level. This essay will include the definition, discussion and application of specific sociological terms, concepts and theories. The study of sociology brings people to view topics in a unique way than others. The way we see the world, human behavior, as well as its connection to society from an outside pointRead MoreBriefly Outline the Distinctive Features of the Sociological Approach to Understanding Human Life and the Illustrate How You Would Use Sociology to Make Sense of Globalisation.1554 Words   |  7 Pagesabout society. Instead it becomes a form of consciousness, a way of thinking, a critical way of seeing the world. It welcomes you to challenge the obvious, to question the world as it is taken for granted and to de-familiarising the familiar. This is what empowers critical thinking which triggers the development of the understanding of the human life. The aim of this essay is to outline the sociological approach to understanding human life , to explore the different sociological perspectives , toRead MoreWhat Is Sociology?1062 Words   |  5 Pagesby saying that sociology is the systematic stud y of human society. Sociology should be more than you find in a good documentary on a social issue. It is certainly more than listings of facts and figures about society. Instead it becomes a form of consciousness a way of thinking, a critical way of seeing the social. Seeing the general in the particular. In his short book ‘Invitation to Sociology’(1963) characterized the sociological perspective as seeing the general in the particular. He meant thatRead MoreAnalysis of the sociological imagination and its use in sociology.1483 Words   |  6 PagesSociological Imagnation The sociological imagination is the ability to look at the everyday world and understand how it operates in order to make sense of their lives. It is a state of mind, which enables us to think critically about and understand the society in which we live, and our place in that world as individuals and as a whole. C. Wright Mills, first wrote of the concept in 1959. His understanding of it being that it was a quest for sociological understanding involving a form of consciousnessRead MoreThe Concept Of Sociological Imagination : Connecting History987 Words   |  4 PagesSociology 3 October 2014 The Concept of Sociological Imagination: Connecting History to Biography C. Wright Mills believed that sociological imagination connects history and biography by means of cause and effect. Society and all things surrounding it have a particular interconnection when it comes to change. As a result, one major alteration to everyday society causes human relationships in history to adapt to change. History is altered by man, without human interaction and the exponential growthRead MoreThe Core Concepts Of Sociology1578 Words   |  7 Pageswith improved sociological approaches that build upon them over time. Sociology utilizes three main theories to approach the study of society with different focus points that result in different outcomes. Furthermore, as stated by Robert Faris and William Form from britannica â€Å"The early schools of thought each presented a systematic formulation of sociology that implied possession of exclusive truth and that involved a conviction of the need to destroy rival systems† (5). Understanding how the threeRead MoreWh at is Sociology?1169 Words   |  5 Pagesdiscussion within this collection broadly follows main concepts and perspectives, with many authors, but also of key peer tested Authors. I will initially outline the main concepts and main perspectives from a selection of these authors, and aim to conclude, that is is the â€Å"sociological thinking† gained from â€Å"unpacking† this knowledge, that can be applied to Social Work today. â€Å"Social theory, consists of major authors, perspectives and key issues, there are many different strands, that although haveRead MoreSociological And Common Sense Understanding1341 Words   |  6 Pagesthis essay, I will explain the distinction between sociological and common sense understanding, highlight the differences between sociology and other social sciences, and evaluate two sociological perspectives – Marxism and feminism. Sociology is the scientific study of human society. It examines the development of social structures, and the interaction between these structures and human behaviour. Sociologists aim to provide tools of understanding the process of socialisation, and investigate theRead MoreSociology and Psychology 823 Words   |  4 Pagesstudy of society social life, social change, and social causes and consequences of human behaviour and allows us to gain an understanding of the structure and dynamics of today’s society, looking at the interlinking links patterns of human behaviour. Sociology looks at the in which social structure and institutions affect our everyday life. Sociological imagination was founded by C. Wright mills in the 1950`s it is an overall understanding of that some of the things that happen in society may lead

Friday, December 13, 2019

Technology For People With Dementia Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

string(222) " system which alert carers when a user cross over a set boundary within their environment, and tracking devices which enable a user to be located at any clip and topographic point \( Alzheimer ‘s Society, 2007b \) \." Around 570,000 people are enduring from dementedness in England and this figure is expected to lift drastically over following few decennaries. The people age 65 and above are more prone to dementia, and the opportunities of developing dementedness additions with older age. There are four different types of dementedness, Alzheimer ‘s disease, vascular dementedness, dementedness with Lewy organic structures and fronto-temporal dementedness. We will write a custom essay sample on Technology For People With Dementia Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Fronto-temporal dementedness is the rarest type of dementedness while as Alzheimer ‘s disease is the most common type. Though dementia affects critical procedures like thought, understanding and memory, self attention is extremely recommended for such people. Apart from ego attention and support from the household, organisations like NHS provide specialised support to the patients ( NHS Choices, 2009 ) . Rolling – a term used to mention to walking behaviors that represent a hazard for an person ( Banty et al. , 2010 ) enduring with dementedness. Such people are difficult to take attention of. Apart from occupational healers, recent advanced in engineering have seen assistive engineering being developed for the people with dementedness. The assistive engineering has sparked a argument amongst the research workers. While some support it and see it as a measure frontward to healthcare of people affected from dementedness, many see it as an violation to the patients ‘ liberty. How successful this assistive engineering proves to be, nevertheless, remains to be seen. â€Å" The usage of the term ‘technology ‘ in relation to dementia attention provokes conflicting reactions. For some, ‘technology is a Jesus, the manner to paradise? ? ? ; others are profoundly leery of engineering and size up its advocates carefully for any tell-tale Markss of the Beast? ? ‘ † ( Cash, 2003 ) . Dementia costs the UK over ?17 billion per twelvemonth. Apart from the consequence this unwellness has on the economic system, the affect on the lives of the people that have dementia and the people associated to the sick are reeling. It has a serious impact on communities. With increasing figure of aged people in the society, the figure of people enduring from the unwellness besides increases. The figure is estimated to be over a million by 2025. This can overpower the wellness and societal attention services, which are already unable to get by with the challenge posed by dementedness ( Alzheimer ‘s Society, 2007a ) . Literature Review The figure of older people aged 65 and over is lifting at an accelerated gait, it is the fastest turning section of the population worldwide and life anticipation is increasing every bit good as length of service over clip. Whilst people are populating longer, the sustained growing of the older population brings every bit considerable wellness, economic and societal challenges ( Li et al, 2007 ; Kinsella and Wan, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to the World Health Organization – WHO, 2001 dementedness presents an unprecedented challenge to the society and is one of chief causes of disablement in ulterior life, impacting chiefly older people. At present, there are about 700,000 people with dementedness in the United Kingdom and this figure is predicted to lift by 154 per cent to over 1.7 million people by the twelvemonth 2051 ( Alzheimer ‘s Society, 2007a ; 2009 ) . The National Dementia Strategy for England – published in 2009 – set up 17 cardinal aims to better the quality of dementedness attention through intervention and direction of the disease. One of the aims highlights the demand for commissioners to see the proviso of options such as assistive engineering to assist people with dementedness to populate independently in their communities and to assist the direction of hazard every bit good as to detain the demand for intensive services including admittance to residential or nursing places ( Department of Health – Do, 2009 ) . In dementedness attention, assistive engineering can be described as a scope of devices and systems taking at back uping persons to keep their independency and authorising clients and carers to pull off more efficaciously their activities of day-to-day populating – ADL ( i.e. , functional mobility ) every bit good as their instrumental activities of day-to-day populating – IADL ( i.e. , community mobility and wellness direction and care ) every bit good as heightening wellbeing. ( American Occupational Therapy Association, 2002 ; Alzheimer ‘s Society, 2007b ) With the execution of specific intercessions including the proviso of assistive engineering, occupational healers may non merely lend to better wellbeing and independency of clients with dementedness, but besides to cut down dependance on their carers, and to protract independent life and detain the demand for intensive or inpatient services including admittance to residential or nursing places ( Graff et al, 2008 ; Chakraborty, 2009? ? ? ) . Dementia is a chronic and progressive organic encephalon upset taking to the diminution of cognitive working including memory loss, troubles with information processing, perceptual experience, spacial consciousness, every bit good as emotional and behavioral alterations ( WHO, 2001 ; Perrin et Al, 2008 ) . Rolling – a term used to mention to walking behaviors that represent a hazard for an single – is one of the most ambitious symptoms of dementedness. It is estimated that rolling occurs between 15 to 60 per centum of people with dementedness. While walking is a good activity, persons can go forth their places ( unnoticed ) and non be able to happen their manner back. Banty et Al ( 2010 ) highlights the hazards associated with rolling including hypothermia, desiccation and even mortality. It can convey hurt and anxiousness to both clients and their carers and it can take to the usage of physical restraint such as persons with dementedness being locked into their places, pharmacological traditional intercessions every bit good as an early admittance to residential attention places. ( Alzheimer ‘s Society, 2007b, Robinson et Al, 2007 ; Banty White et Al, 2010 ; Hope and Fairburn, 2004 ) Safer walking engineering – an alternate term used by Alzheimer Society in the United Kingdom – United kingdom which encompasses ‘electronic surveillance, labeling and tracking engineering and it will be used throughout this survey – might enable people with dementedness to keep their independency, to prosecute their occupational activities to increase liberty whilst understating hazard, accordingly lending to their wellbeing. These engineerings comprise of dismay and surveillance system which alert carers when a user cross over a set boundary within their environment, and tracking devices which enable a user to be located at any clip and topographic point ( Alzheimer ‘s Society, 2007b ) . You read "Technology For People With Dementia Health And Social Care Essay" in category "Essay examples" Despite several progresss in research, evidence-based surveies back uping the efficaciousness of this engineering for people with dementedness with rolling behavior remains limited and inconclusive. ( Cash, 2003 ; Adams and Clarke, 2001 ) The writer of this survey intends to reexamine four recent research findings related to safer walking engineering and people with dementedness life in the community. In visible radiation of demographic, social-economic tendencies, the UK authorities is making enterprises and policies with the purpose of protracting independent life for people with dementedness in the community ( DoH, 2009 more mentions ) . Non-statutory administrations such as Alzheimer ‘s ‘ Society support the usage of this engineering. Both sectors nevertheless, strongly highlights the demand for farther research and evidence-based on the clinical effectivity of the usage of this engineerings ( DoH, 2009 ; Shoval et Al, 2008 ) . While there are possible positive and digesting benefits from utilizing safer walking engineering for people with dementedness and their carers ; there are nevertheless, of import factors to be considered such as ethical considerations and the hazard involved in utilizing and supplying these engineerings. In drumhead, there are an increasing figure of surveies on safer walking engineering which highlight the common subjects presented on their findings including the benefits and hazards for users and carers on utilizing its devices and systems every bit good as the ethical issues involved in the usage and development of this advanced engineering. The surveies besides greatly emphasise the demand of farther researches with the engagement of users and their carers ( Robinson et al, 2007 ; BMJ, 2007? ? Where is the mention? / ; Shoval et Al, 2008 ; Landau et Al, 2009 ) . Literature Review Highlights Robinson et Al. ( 2007 ) say that the recommendations by the current authorities in England suggest a national attack to put on the line direction. But, in a litigious society, the balance between hazard direction and the person-centred attack in dementedness attention is difficult to keep. While rolling behavior in people with dementedness can be helpful, it is chiefly harmful and generates emotional hurt in the carers. The struggle between bar of injury and easing the individual ‘s right to autonomy frequently puts the carers into a quandary. The related issue is highlighted through the usage of assistive engineerings such as electronic tracking devices. The patients feel that these engineerings place them at greater hazards, i.e. as a mark to larceny. The patients besides express concern over their independency. There is a demand to develop practical tools for pull offing hazard within dementedness attention which allow both hazard direction to be managed and all other posit ion negotiated. BMJ ( 2007 ) assesses the cost effectivity of community based occupational therapy compared with usual attention in older patients with dementedness and the caretakers. â€Å" Community occupational therapy intercession for patients with dementedness and their attention givers is successful and cost effectual, particularly in footings of informal attention giving. † Dementia is one of the major causes of disablement in aged people. The disease is degenerative and causes memory and behavioral upsets. It besides consequences in loss of independent operation, concluding and opinion. This causes jobs to the ill and load to the household and the caretakers. Occupational therapy tends to convey about an betterment in the day-to-day operation of the people with dementedness. It may besides cut down health care costs because of improved independency in patients and an enhanced sense of competency in the attention takers. Shoval et Al ( 2008 ) stress on the most common behavioral manifestations of upsets related to dementia, i.e. jobs with out-of-home mobility. Attempts have been made in the yesteryear to accomplish a better apprehension sing the mobility behavior. But, all the observations are based on the institutionalised patients and health professionals. There is a demand to do a significant part to basic every bit good as applied and clinical facets in the country of cognitive damage and mobility research. Landau et Al ( 2009 ) examined the attitudes of the household and professional health professionals towards the usage of electronic tracking for patients with dementedness. The health professionals were caught between caring for the safety of the patients and patient ‘s liberty. Family health professionals favoured the electronic trailing devices like the Global Positioning System ( GPS ) and the Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID ) . Both household and professional health professionals believe that determination on tracking the patients with dementedness should be an intra-family issue. These electronic devices are really of import for rolling patients as these people may non be recollect their memory to happen their manner back place. For older people with dementedness, rolling can be a potentially life endangering behavior. Sing the demand for assistive engineering for the roving patients, it is necessary to happen an reply to the undermentioned inquiry: What is the position of the occupational healers on the proviso of safer walking engineering with dementedness? Hence an interview to research ‘occupational healers ‘ position on the proviso of safer walking engineering for people with dementedness with rolling behavior in the community ‘ is both appropriate and feasible. To reply the above inquiry, the proposed research aims are: to look into participants ‘ consciousness of safer walking engineering to understand the importance of technological aid in safe walking techniques Research Methodology Description and Justification of Research Design The purpose of this survey is to research the occupational healers ‘ position on the proviso of safe walking engineering for people with dementedness with rolling behavior. For the intent of a deep survey into the issues, a qualitative research method was used. Qualitative research seeks to explicate the universe instead than step it. Qualitative research is holistic and blatantly interpretive. This sort of a research design trades chiefly with words ( Iorio, 2004 ) . Qualitative research workers examine the texts and artifacts in their work while entering everything they find in authorship or otherwise. These records are so analysed and interpreted to analyze a research job and happen suited decisions. A constructivist grounded theory research design was applied to come up with a conclusive statement. Constructivism is a theoretical attack to societal scientific discipline. The theory is based on the premise that people create their ain societal universe and acknowledges multiple worlds. It recognises the common creative activity of cognition by the research worker and participant. Therefore, constructivist attack necessitates a relationship with participants in which they can state their narratives in their ain footings while listening with openness to feeling and experience is every bit of import ( Charmaz, 2000 ) . Grounded theory is an attack to data aggregation and analysis ab initio developed by Glaser and Strauss in the sixtiess. The purpose of the grounded theory research is to develop theory from the informations collected by the research worker ( Halloway 1997 ) . A constructivist attack to anchor theory requires following a place of mutualness between the research worker and participant in the research procedure which requires a rethinking of the grounded theoretician ‘s traditional function of nonsubjective perceiver ( Mills et al. , 2006 ) . Position is ‘a mental position of the comparative importance of things ‘ ( oxford lexicon, 1990 ) , a subjective construct which can non be quantifiable, hence a semi-structured interview will be the chosen method of informations aggregation. Halloway ( 1997 ) says that interviews are the favoured method of qualitative research. While roll uping all the necessary theoretical informations, interviews give the research worker a opportunity to obtain positions of the participants/interviewees by giving them a opportunity to show their ain ideas and feelings. Interview method allows an in-depth history of participants ‘ experiences ( Domholdt, 2005 ) and their positions analysed for elicited subjects and classs associated to the relevant research inquiry. A semi-structured interview method is deemed appropriate for this survey, as it can be seen as a flexible attack to let possibility to research beyond the replies and potentially to come in into natural two-ways conversation with the participant. For the selected method, a set of open-ended inquiries ( Appendix 2 ) purpose to let for participants to give their sentiments without being restricted as deemed when utilizing structured interview or questionnaire methods to informations aggregation. While interview is the suited method for this survey, in peculiar in a semi-structure format where participants can research in deepness their position on safer walking engineerings and their positions on the incorporation of electronic surveillance of the patients ; there are restrictions including clip ( questioning, transcribing and analyzing informations ) , limited geographical distribution due to costs and clip, low dependability and possible prejudice ( Domholdt, 2005 ) . The research procedure would be completed in eight hebdomads ( Appendix 1 ) . Literature reappraisal is an of import portion of this research and it would be of import to maintain update of the new developments over the class of this research. The experimental design would be finalized in hebdomad 2 and 3 and submitted for ethical blessing of the concerned governments. Week 3 and 4 will see the enlisting of the practicians for the interviews, and the interviews will be held in hebdomads 4 to 6. The informations obtained from the interviews will be analysed and a study prepared by the terminal of 8th hebdomad. Indication and Justification of Required Number of Participants As the research is comparatively little graduated table, merely 10 participants will be interviewed. They will be qualified occupational healers with changing grades of station measure uping experience, employed by the National Health Services – NHS within Community Mental Health Teams – CMHT who work with people with dementedness for at least two old ages. Administration of Access to and Recruitment of Possible Participants The choice of the participants will be conducted utilizing a purposive sampling. This type of trying involves witting choice of certain elements by the research worker ( Grove, 2005 ) . The research worker will enlist the contact inside informations of all older people-community mental wellness squads ( CMHT ) in the greater London country. After ethical blessing has been gained from all relevant organic structures, the research worker will seek contact with service directors of each squad to obtain permission to reach occupational healers as possible participants to this survey. Additional permissions and blessing of the CNHT would be required to carry on these interviews within their office installations. Inclusion Exclusion Criteria of Participants The inclusion standards require that participants are qualified occupational healers, working with people with dementedness for at least two old ages in an older people mental wellness community squads. The participants might work as occupational healers specific and as a care-coordinator. The clip restriction will guarantee that research worker will derive a richer in-depth history of their experiences and position of supplying or sing the proviso of safer walking. Geographic distribution will be limited to participants working in a NHS trust within the greater London country parametric quantities. The exclusion standards require that participants to hold no managerial place. The current state of affairs requires a direct interaction with the professionals involved in the attention of the people with dementedness. The sample will be chiefly guided to interview operational healers presently working straight with the patients. Indication of Ethical Issues Relevant to the Proposal The undertaking would be submitted to the moralss commission of the Brunel University for their blessing. After acquiring the blessing from the university, the proposal would be submitted to the research ethical commission ( REC ) of NHS for their blessing. Discussion of Ethical Considerations Related to Participation and Consent An informed consent would be required from the occupational healers prior to the enlisting for this undertaking. If necessary, permission would be taken from the organisations like NHS the practicians are involved with earlier enlisting. The practicians ‘ would be kept good informed about the work and its results. Indication of Any Risks and Benefits to Participants and/or Researcher In relation to the two out of four most of import ethical rules prolonging ethical pattern in most countries of wellness attention beneficence ( making good ) and non-malfeasance ( non making injury ) ( Beauchamp and Childress, 2001 ) ; the research worker, by questioning, and deriving information on the position and sentiments of participants in relation to the proviso of safer walking engineering to service users, endeavoured to advance the well being of the participants and to guarantee that no injury was experienced by them. Although this is a little survey with comparatively low risked involved, measuring the possible benefits against the hazard to both participant and interviewer will be an on-going consideration during the research procedure. Harmonizing to College of Occupational Therapists ( 2003 ) , â€Å" Research must hold intended value for participants, research workers, the profession, the research community and/or society. † While there is no direct benefits to take part in this survey, participants will hold an chance to show their sentiment about the issue of safer walking engineering where research is thin within occupational therapy and lending to the addition of research capacity within the profession ( College of Occupational Therapists, 2010 ) . Consideration of issues of confidentiality and informations security The results of the interviews would be kept confidential. While in some interviews it is of import to uncover the inside informations, nevertheless, the participants can take to stay anon. in this instance ( Driscoll, and Brizee, 2010 ) . Comprehensive description of Procedures Occupational healers willing to take part in the research will have full information prior to make up one’s minding to take part. After having informed consent signifiers back, participants will be contacted by telephone to set up a suited clip for interview every bit good as for booking an interview/meeting room at their office premises. Interviews will last about 60 proceedingss, nevertheless, it will be agreed with participants that interview/meeting room must booked for 90 proceedingss. The participants would be given all the inside informations of the research methodological analysis. Furthermore, the research worker will explicate to participants the processs for the interview including confidentiality issues. Measures would be taken to do certain that this research does non harm the participants in any mode. If necessary, names or any designation will be removed from records. To avoid personal sentiments impacting the result of the interviews, researched would be accompanied by his or her coach. Description and justification of the proposed pilot survey that would be carried out prior to induction of the full survey A pilot interview will be conducted with one the occupational healers within the chief sample of participants. This step can supply an chance for the researcher/interviewer to reflect on and measure on his/her interview, verbal and non-verbal communicating every bit good as the participant reaction to the interview. In add-on, a pilot interview will enable the researcher/interviewer to obtain participant feedback on the suitableness of the informations aggregation methods including lucidity of the inquiries every bit good as become accustomed to the use of the recording equipment and informations security processs ( Domholdt, 2005 ) . To understate prejudice, the researcher/interviewer will work under his/her coach supervising. The feedback informations will be evaluated and analysed by both researcher and coach. Whether minor or major alterations are required, the research worker will set the original set of inquiries or either to supply a new set of inquiry harmonizing to the findings. The pilot interview will be incorporated into the chief survey if no alteration is needed otherwise the stuff relevant to the pilot interview will be destroyed. Justification of chosen method of Data analysis Data analysis was coincident to the informations aggregation. For the analysis of informations, the grounded theory attack of Strauss and Corbin ( 1990 ) was used. As informations collected through qualitative research is constantly unstructured and frequently text based, the qualitative research worker has to supply some construction and coherency to the big sum of informations while retaining a clasp of the original histories and observations from which it is derived ( Holloway, 1997 ) . To ease this, the model analysis designed by Richie and Spencer ( 1994 ) was used. This method portions common characteristics with thematic analysis. Framework analysis is designed to ease systematic analysis of the information. It is an inductive attack and uses the changeless comparative method which is a cardinal characteristic of grounded theory. This attack was chosen because it is systematic, easy to follow and consistent with a constructivist position. Five cardinal phases to the procedure are identified: familiarization, placing a thematic model, indexing, charting and function and reading ( Ritchie and Spencer, 1994 ) . It is possible either for all the informations to be collected before analysis occurs or every bit for informations aggregation and analysis to happen at the same time. The changeless comparative attack was used so that in line with the constructivist nature of the enquiry some of the findings from earlier interviews could be fed into subsequent interviews by a procedure known as the hermeneutic rhythm ( Rodwell, 1998 ) . Appraisal of Resources required, including a Timetable for the Proposed Research. Cost will include travel disbursals within Greater London country with the usage of an oyster card ; printing and letter paper stuff and postage ; purchase of a new sim card to be used on the research workers ‘ Mobile phone. Fundss to cover the above costs will be provided by the research worker. Digital recording equipment, rechargeable battery and a laptop computing machine with suited applications including package for uploading the collected stuff are properness of the research worker ; hence no cost will be incurred on the use of the above equipments. The research worker intends to carry on interviews in an interview/meeting room at participants ‘ CMHT offices. Therefore no costs will be incurred on leasing installations for the intent of this survey. Human resources include both researcher and tutor clip and handiness. Decision Dementia affects the mental ability of the people enduring from it adversely. It is responsible for impairment of the cognitive abilities like opinion and apprehension. In many instances, dementedness leads to a status called roving, where the patients go on lone walks and bury the manner back because of the medical status. The debut of electronic surveillance and community based attention are recent developments in the field of dementedness attention. Dementia is one of the most cost incurring diseases in the UK. The new facets of attention claim to admit the comparative issues of the disease and do it economically feasible. Although new schemes are being devised and implemented on a regular basis, dementedness continues to be a serious economic and wellness attention job. There have been claims of rolling being good to the wellness of people holding dementedness ; the grounds is non strong ( Robinson et al, 2007 ) . The electronic trailing devices are wild put to inquiry by the professional health professionals for attaching on the personal liberty of the people holding dementedness. This signifies a displacement towards a more person-centred attack to the direction of rolling. This displacement towards the individual centred attack may besides be reflected in the hereafter research surveies and the result steps selected to measure the effectivity of new schemes and intercessions. There is a demand to choose the result steps which are more meaningful to people with dementedness and their carers, such as quality of life, physical and emotional well being and serious inauspicious events alternatively of t rying to mensurate existent behavior ( Robinson, 2007 ) . This survey capitalizes on the positions of the occupational healers to spot a demand for individual centred attention in the hereafter. It has been established that there exists a demand to explicate a state of affairs specific tool for measuring all assortments of hazards. The survey has found that this aforesaid tool demands to non merely be a hazard estimating method but should besides function the demand for embracing a myriad of positions that will so be taken into history, evaluated and catalogued as mention stuff every bit good. Te survey highlights the function of helpful engineerings in authorising individuals get bying with assorted signifiers of dementedness and enabling them to populate a self-sufficing life. Adept sentiment dictates that while measuring the importance, utility and farther range of electronic devices aimed at helping people enduring from dementia the primary deciding factor should be the positions and sentiments of the people themselves, followed by find ings derived from scientific and academic researches. Appendix 1 Figure 1. A Gantt chart explicating the timeline that would be followed during the class of the research Appendix 2 Questionnaire How serious is the issue of rolling in people with dementedness? How can this job be overcome? What is more of import – safety of the patient or patient ‘s liberty? Positions on assistive engineering. Does assistive engineering pose a serious menace to a patient ‘s liberty? How of import is patient ‘s consent for usage of assistive engineering? Keeping the drawbacks of the assistive engineering in head, how can this engineering be improved to do it more patient friendly? What is better – a patient centred healthcare installation or engineering based health care? Taking the pros and cons of rolling into history, is rolling good for people with dementedness? What is more of import – research on societal attention or research on engineering? How to cite Technology For People With Dementia Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Human Resource Management for Employers-

Question: Discuss about theHuman Resource Management for Employers and Employees. Answer: Introduction Human Resource Management Human resource management is an approach that ensures proper management of the workforce using various core and non-core functions, such as recruitment and selection, compensation and benefit management, performance management, training and development (Armstrong Taylor, 2014). Human resource management works by establishing better relations between employers and employees, which is made possible by improving the work conditions for the employees (Albrecht, et al., 2015). Global Retail Industry The global retail industry is one of the most important businesses that offers employment opportunities to millions of people. A retail business or a retail outlet is a place where exchange of multiple goods and services takes place, such as groceries, electronics, household, etc. (Lucintel, 2012)The retail industry comprises of small grocery shops as well as supermarkets where every product required in our day-to-day life is available for purchase. Recruitment and selection Recruitment is a process of identifying possible vacancies in a business organisations and inviting applications for the identified vacancies. Selection, on the other hand, is a process that involves screening of the applicants that have applied for a job so that the vacancies identified can be fulfilled and the organisation can run smoothly. Recruitment and selection is a major problem in the retail industry due to a number of issues (Rothwell Prescott, 2012). Some major issues related to recruitment and selection in the retail industry have been discussed below. Recruitment and selection issues in retail industry Retail industry is one of the most important industry in the world because of the contribution that it makes towards the global GDP and employment opportunities that it offers to the global population. However, there are a number of issues that the managers working in retail industry face while carrying out selection and recruitment of employees to meet the demand of their retail stores. Some of the issues, related to recruitment and selection, that the global retail industry faces are discussed below: First of all, recruitment and selection in the global retail industry is highly decentralised. Unlike other industries, where the human resource demand and supply patterns can be forecasted using data from the past and present, the human resource demand in the retail industry can never be accurately forecasted as each of the retail stores have their own human resource demand, which can undergo a change in real time (Barrett, 2016). As a result, the managers of the retail stores act as human resource managers of their respective stores and as they are not educated in the field of human resource management, they are rarely an expert in the field and are not able to carry out the recruitment and selection properly. Secondly, the fluctuations in human resource demand and supply patterns, experienced by the companies operating in the retail industry, pose a significant issue to the recruitment and selection procedures followed by the managers. The retail industry experiences a lot of fluctuations in human resource demands because of seasonal activities and festival seasons. During such periods, the human resource demands can increase and the failure to meet the human resource demands can result in decline of sales to a great extent. On the other hand, employing surplus staff can become a burden on the resources of the retail stores. Thus, recruitment and selection in the retail industry is difficult and is carried on as a continuous process because of high fluctuations in the demand and supply patterns of human resources. Thirdly, the global retail industry experiences very high employee turnover rates. The retail industry is one industry which offers easy employment opportunities to the public because working in a retail store does not require much qualifications. Further, the pay scale for the employees working in the retail industry is also good, as compared to the qualifications required. Thus, a lot of unemployed people approach retail stores to get a job but demonstrate a very high tendency to quit their jobs once they receive a better job offer (Khillare, 2016). As a result, the retail industry experienced high employee turnover ratios and it becomes difficult for the retail companies to meet the human resource demands of their retail outlets. Fourthly, the high fluctuations in human resource demand patterns makes it more important to keep the retail stores adequately employed rather than screening the candidates thoroughly before they can be recruited. Further, as the retail managers are not experts in the field of recruitment and selection, they are not able to assess the personality of the candidates and predict certain important traits about their personalities, such as organisational commitment, job commitment, etc. The managers taking care of all the recruitment and selection process have to take immediate decisions when a candidate approaches them for a job opportunity as a delay in taking a decision can result in the loss of a talented candidate, who might visit other retail stores for a job (Sinha, 2009). Therefore, the managers looking after the recruitment and selection of employees in the retail industry have a very less time to make recruitment decisions and are not able to assess the personalities of the cand idates adequately. Fifthly, a major issue that the managers operating in the retail industry face is that there is no shortage of candidates and the applicants in the retail industry are from diverse backgrounds, age groups, ethnicity, etc. and all of them are equally eligible to work in the retail stores. As a result, the pool of applicants will vary in terms of education and experience and all them being eligible for the job makes it difficult for the managers to recruit candidates and refuse some of them (Merkel, et al., 2009). It is also important for the managers working in the retail industry to behave ethically towards the candidates because most likely, they are also a customer in the business and will base their buying decisions on the basis of the way in which they are treated. Dealing with the recruitment and selection issues in retail industry The global retail industry is one industry that experiences a lot of issues when it comes to recruitment and selection of candidate. Dealing with the issues becomes important because the retail industry is highly dependent on its human resources to attend and deal with thousands of customers that visit the store on a daily basis. Some strategies that can help the managers working in the retail industry in dealing with recruitment and selection issues are discussed below: First of all, the retail industry managers should implement strategies that would help them in retaining their employees and reducing their employee turnover rates. Some strategies to achieve these objectives can be to offer better compensation and benefits to the employees or by offering them with certain welfare activities while they are working in the retail stores. In other words, the managers of the retail stores need to make the job more interesting and the work conditions more suitable for the employees so that they can differentiate the retail company from the competitive firms (Bansal, 2014). Such actions can help retail companies in distinguishing themselves from other retailers, attracting talented pool of employees, retaining the existing pool of employees and also in becoming an employer of choice for the fresh candidates in the retail industry. Secondly, the managers working in the retail industry need to carry out human resource demand forecasting on a continuous basis. Forecasting the human resource demands of the retail stores on a continuous basis will allow the managers to be prepared with strategies that would help them in meeting any fluctuations in the demand identified (Bhattacharyya, 2009). The managers should also find out new ways to deal with fluctuations in human resource demands, such as recruiting employees on a temporary basis for seasonal or festival demands as the walk-in during such times increases exponentially. This would not only allow them to carry out their work operations smoothly but would also help them in curbing their operational costs. Conclusion/Recommendations The global retail industry is one of the most competitive industries as the competition in the market is very high. Major supermarkets and individually owned grocery shops pose a great threat to each other and are able to achieve competencies only on the basis of how well they are able to attend the customers. To offer better services, retail outlets require adequate human resource supply as shortage of human resources can delay the restocking process and can even become a reason for customer dissatisfaction with the retail store. As a result, it is important to manage the human resources in a retail store in the best possible manner. On the other hand, managing the human resources in the retail industry is not an easy task. Recruitment and selection of employees in the retail industry is a tough job as there are a number of issues experienced by the managers of retail stores while trying to attract and retain talented candidates. If the managers have a little knowledge about the concepts of human resource management, they can implement efficient strategies that would not only help them in retaining their employees but also in attracting a greater pool of talented employees. To achieve better efficiency in the management of human resources and in the recruitment and selection of employees, the managers of the retail stores can look into the strategies discussed above. References Lucintel, 2012. Growth Opportunities in the Global Retail Market. [Online] Available at:[Accessed 24 September 2017]. Armstrong, M. Taylor, S., 2014. Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. s.l.:Kogan Page Publishers. Albrecht, S. L. et al., 2015. Employee engagement, human resource management practices and competitive advantage: An integrated approach. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance , 2(1). Rothwell, W. J. Prescott, R. K., 2012. Recruitment and Selection. The Encyclopedia of Human Resource Management: Short Entries, 9 April, 2017(September), p. 24. Barrett, D., 2016. Six recruitment challenges that retailers must conquer. [Online] Available at:[Accessed 26 September 2017]. Khillare, D. S., 2016. Challenges Of Human Resource Practices In Retail Sectors : in India. International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences, March.4(3). Sinha, B. K., 2009. Trends and Issues in Recruitment and Selection: A Critical Analysis. [Online] Available at:[Accessed 25 September 2017]. Merkel, J., Jackson, P. Pick, D., 2009. New Challenges in Retail Human Resource Management. Retailing in the 21st Century, 30 November, 2017(September), p. 26. Bansal, S., 2014. EMPLOYEE RETENTION STRATEGIES. International Journal of Research in Management Social Science, June.2(2). Bhattacharyya, D. K., 2009. Human Resource Planning. 2 ed. s.l.:Excel Books.